is the surface quality that can be seen andelt. Textures can be rough or smooth, soft or hard. Textures are often implied. For instance, a drawing of a rock might appear to have a rough and hard surface, but in reality is as smooth as the paper on which it is drawn.
differentiates and defines lines, shapes, forms, and space. Even black and white images have a huge number of different
shades of gray.
is the area between and around objects. Increasing or decreasing the amount of space around an object affects the way
we view that object
is created in a work of art when textures, colors, forms, or shapes are combined harmoniously. In this image, notice how the photographer achieves a sense of balance by dividing the image into two sections: one half occupied by trees, and the other half by the water.
is the use of elements of design that do not seem to go together to hold the viewer's attention and to guide the viewer's eye through the artwork by creating visual tension. In an image, elements that are quite different show contrast.
is the way a viewer's eye is directed to move through a composition, often to areas of emphasis. Movement can be directed by lines, contrasting shapes, or colors within the artwork.
or focus is created in a work of art when the artist contrasts colors, textures, or shapes to direct your viewing towards a particular part of the image.
is the repetition of a shape, form, or texture across a work of art.
is the repetition of pattern to create the expectation that the pattern will continue.
Proportion & Scale
is created when the sizes of elements in a work of art are combined harmoniously. Sometimes changes in Scale - making large things small or large things small - can change or perceptions
Unity or Harmony
is created when the principles of analysis are present in a composition and in harmony - things go together. Some images have a complete sense of unity, while some artists deliberately avoid formal unity to create feelings of tension and anxiety. Unity is the other end of the spectrum from contrast.